See also America: Texts and Sources



From Africa to Afro. Use and Abuse of Africa in Brazil
Livio Sansone
[no ISBN avail.] 46pp. 1999 [publ. 2000] CODESRIA $13.95/£7.955
Brazil has long occupied a special place in black culture, with its strong African heritage. The author explores the African dimension in national cultural, religious and political manifestations. He identifies a major shift in the meaning of the word 'Africa' in Brazil. 'Africa' has come to signify civilisation and tradition within black culture, somewhat in opposition to 'Afro' which has come to mean a lifestyle. There has been growing diversification within black culture in Brazil. Focusing on the Bahia region, he shows how the issue has impacted on race relations, and on the white/black intellectual debate.

CaioPrado Junior. The Colonial Background to Modem Brazil, Beverley 1967

Harris, J.E., The African Diaspora in the Old and New Worlds

Harris, Joseph,ed, Global dimensions of the African Diaspora

Rout, Leslie BJnr, The African in Colonial Brazil (in Martin Kilson and Robert Rotberg, TheAfrican Diaspora: Interpretative Essays, Howard UP)